How spammers harvest Email addresses

No doubt you have ever received a spam email and you wonder how did they get your email address. Of course there are several ways that spammers harvest emails addresses. But I just want to highlight some other ways here and a tool called theHarvester which is an OSINT tool for pentesters, but can be used by spammers

  1. hacked-emails.
    When you visit the website of hacked emails you will get tons and tons of hacked email all scrounged from the darknet, so spammers can use sources like that to get your emails address when the site you signup from has ben compromised.

  2. Google dorks. There are lots of cool google dorks that can be used to scrounge emails, I don’t know if google is aware of this dorks, but to me they are Sinister, hackers can use them to scrounge information

  3. theHarvester and OSINT tool
    This is such a powerful tool that has been developed by pentesters it has the following features

and more features. that this tool has.

So what other method do you know spammers use to get email?